With very uncertain origins, it was a Daun centre and later became a Roman Colony. It developed thanks to its favourable defensive position. Luceria was always an ally of Rome and during the second Sannitic war, in an attempt to rescue the city, the Roman army suffered a serious defeat in the battle of the Caudine Forks. The town enjoyed its moment of maximum splendour under the Swabians and the Angevins.  
It has various monuments dating back to different historical ages, of which the most important are: the Roman Amphitheatre, the Swabian-Angevin Fortress, the Cathedral and church of Saint Francesco, both dating back to the Angevin period.